Surgical Management of Urolithiasis in Male Dogs: A Clinical Review of 10 Cases

Mudasir Ahmad Shah, Abas Rashid Bhat, Mohammed Arif Basha, Abhishek Saxena


Urolithiasis poses an acute life threatening emergency and most frequently obstructs the lower
urinary tract in male dogs (Franti et al., 1999). It has been reported that the upper urinary tract
calculi are uncommon in dogs and cats with majority of uroliths (Osborne and Fletcher, 1995). The
most probable causes include infections, nutritional deficiencies and mineral imbalances. The
mineral deposits which form in the bladder of male dogs get flushed out of the bladder with urine
and lodge in the penis just behind the os penis which is the most commonly reported site of
obstruction followed by ischial arch (Franti et al., 1999). Diagnostic imaging techniques like
radiography and ultrasonography are sensitive in diagnosis, with abdominal ultrasonography having
90% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% accuracy (Webb, 2000).
Treatment of urolithiasis can be attempted by retrograde urethral hydropropulsion for urethroliths
followed by cystotomy (Osborne et al., 1999), failing of which urethrotomy or urethrostomy is
indicated (Smeak, 2000). Other techniques like bladder marsupialization, surgical tube cystostomy
and minimal invasive surgical tube cystostomy with their short and long-term complications have
been attempted. However, in this study the cases were relieved by retrograde urethral hydropropulsion,
cystotomy and urethrotomy.



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