THE INDIAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY <p><strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (IJVSBT)&nbsp;</strong><strong> is published by the </strong><strong>Society for Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (SVSBT)&nbsp; Indore (M.P.) </strong></p> <p><strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (IJVSBT)&nbsp;</strong>is an Open Access online and print journal, that publishes Original Articles, Review Articles, Short Communications and Case Reports in all areas of Veterinary Science and its related subjects.&nbsp; Previously the journal was published as <strong>The Indian Journal of Field Veterinarians</strong> which is renamed as <strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology</strong> in 2015 and was only print version till April –June issue Vol 11-4 (2016) and is converted into an Open Access online and print journal since July-Sept issue&nbsp; Vol 12-1 (2016).</p> <p><strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (IJVSBT)</strong> is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that aims to publish high-quality papers rapidly and makes them freely available to researchers worldwide.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>pISSN&nbsp;</strong>2394-0247(Print), e<strong>ISSN</strong>&nbsp;2395-1176 (Print and Online ) <strong>Abbreviated title:&nbsp;</strong>IJVSBT</p> Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research en-US THE INDIAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 2394-0247 Effect of Rumen Mega Mineral Bolus Insertion at Calving on Blood Biochemical and Minerals Profile and Postpartum Fertility in Kankrej Cows A study was conducted on 12 pluriparous parturient Kankrej cows of the University Farm, in Anand, randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 6 each). Group-I cows were administered on the day of calving with a sustained release 80 g mega mineral rumen bolus (Prepavel® 1 bolus/animal, Neolait, France) intra-ruminal through a specially designed applicator, while group-II animals served as untreated control. The animals were monitored periodically from the day of calving till 140 days postpartum along with other herd mates. Blood samples were obtained at 10 days interval in heparinized vacutainers for plasma progesterone, biochemical, and macro-micro mineral profiling. Among the six Kankrej cows of group-I, only one animal exhibited prominent estrus signs on day 96 postpartum and conceived at first service (AI) giving CR of 16.66%, while in group-II three cows exhibited estrus between day 73 and 86 postpartum, and conceived with one or two AI giving CR of 50% by 150 days postpartum. In both the groups, all other cows remained subestrus for more than 150 days postpartum and conceived very late, though mostly with single service at spontaneous estrus. The mean values of plasma progesterone (0.74 ± 0.32 to 5.57 ± 0.78 ng/mL), total cholesterol (103.88 ± 3.20 to 237.17 ± 24.66 mg/dL) and triglycerides (17.07 ± 1.16 to 28.29 ± 1.75 mg/dL) differed significantly (p less than 0.01) between postpartum intervals in both the groups, but not between groups at any of the intervals. The values of plasma total protein, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium as well as trace elements, viz., zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, and manganese, however varied insignificantly and inconsistently between intervals and also between groups from day 0 to day 140 postpartum. Thus, the insertion of Mega mineral ruminal bolus on the day of calving did not influence the plasma profile of biochemical/ metabolic constituents and macro-micro minerals profile in lactating postpartum Kankrej cows and was not beneficial in improving postpartum fertility. However, further study on a larger sample size is required to draw a valid conclusion. Mehrajuddin Naikoo Arjun J Dhami Bhupendra C Parmar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 01 06 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.1 Electrolytes Profile of Estrual Mucus of Gir Cows with Reference to Body Condition Score and Fertility Fifty Gir cows of different reproductive status (10 = normal cyclic, 20 = repeat breeders and 20=induced estrus) were selected to determine the association of electrolytes mainly the macro-minerals profile of their estrual cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) to their body condition score (BCS) and fertility post-AI. The overall pooled mean concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium obtained in CVM of Gir cows were 14.27 ± 0.33 mg/dL, 1.87 ± 0.13 mg/dL, 4.24 ± 0.10 mEq/L, 159.85 ± 5.52 mEq/L and 29.50 ± 0.78 mEq/L, respectively. The repeat breeding cows had significantly (p less than 0.01) higher calcium and lower inorganic phosphorus, sodium and potassium in their CVM than the normal cyclic and/or induced estrus cows. Similarly, the conceived cows, overall and of repeater group, had significantly (p less than 0.05) lower calcium and higher phosphorus, sodium and potassium than the non-conceived cows. However, no such variation was found in the magnesium content of CVM of these groups. Further, the levels of calcium in CVM showed an increasing trend, while other elements showed a decreasing trend with an increase in BCS from 2.5 to 3.5 (on 0-5 point scale) in all three categories of animals, but the differences were not significant for BCS within the group/category. It was thus inferred that significantly increased or widened Ca:P ratio and absolute lower levels of sodium and potassium in CVM could be responsible for conception failure and repeat breeding in dairy cows. MM Gohel Fulabhai S Kavani Arjun J Dhami Kamlesh K Hadiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 07 10 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.2 Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Essential Oils as an Alternative to Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Performance of Commercial Broilers An experiment was conducted to assess the effects of thyme and peppermint essential oils (EO) as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) on the performance of broiler chicken. Total 256 day-old Vencobb broiler chicks were randomly distributed into eight experimental groups with four replicates of eight birds each. Experimental groups were fed with control diet without supplementation of AGP and essential oils (T1), BMD (Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate) antibiotic @ 500 mg/kg diet (T2), thyme essential oil @ 150 mg/kg diet (T3), 200 mg/kg diet (T4), 250 mg/kg diet (T5), peppermint essential oil @ 200 mg/kg diet (T6), 250 mg/kg diet (T7) and 300 mg/kg diet (T8). The supplementation of thyme oil @ 200 mg/kg and peppermint oil @ 300 mg/kg broiler diet significantly (p less than 0.05) improved b.wt. and b.wt gain. The peppermint oil supplementation @ 300 mg/kg was found to be more beneficial when compared among different oil-supplemented groups. The feed conversion ratio was significantly (p less than 0.05) improved with peppermint oil supplementation @ 300 mg/kg diet. A significant (p less than 0.05) reduction in the mean abdominal fat was observed in diet supplemented with higher levels of thyme oil (@ 250 mg/kg diet) and peppermint oil (@ 300 mg/kg diet). Return over feed cost was the highest in broilers assigned diet with AGP; however, it was statistically similar to the basal diet. Considering the net return over fed cost of broilers, use of thyme oil was uneconomical, but supplementation of peppermint essential oil @ 200 and 300 mg/kg diet increased the net return over feed cost and were economical, however less as compared to T1 and T2. RK Mishra Rajalekshmi C Fulabhai P Savaliya Atul B Patel Pravin M Lunagariya Nitesh J Bhagora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 11 16 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.3 Effect of Herbal, Homeopathic and Hormonal Drug on Hematology, Ovarian Cyclicity and Conception Rate in Postpartum Anoestrus Cows The study was designed to assess the effect of herbal, homeopathic, and hormonal drugs namely Janova, Sepia and GnRH-PG-GnRH on hematological parameters, resumption of ovarian cyclicity and conception rate in 40 postpartum anoestrus and 8 normal cyclic cows. The anoestrus cows were randomly divided into five groups as G0, GI, GII, GIII, GIV; 8 cows in each group. Group G0 (untreated anoestrus) and GV (normal cyclic cows) served as positive and negative control, respectively. All cows in GI, GII, GIII and GIV were subjected to dewormer and mineral mixture supplementation for 10 days, while group GII, GIII, and GIV were additionally treated with Janova (herbal heat inducer), Sepia (a homeopathic drug) and GnRH-PG-GnRH (Ovsynch) protocol, respectively. Different therapeutic protocols revealed variable and significant effects on most of the hematological parameters, except differential leucocyte count, before and after treatment. The values were also significantly higher in normal cyclic than anoestrus groups. The oestrus induction response in G0, GI, GII, GIII, GIV, and GV was 0.00, 50.00, 62.50, 75.00, 87.50, and 100.00 %, and corresponding overall conception rates of 3 cycles were 0.00, 75.00, 80.00, 66.66, 57.13 and 75.00 %, respectively. In conclusion, aforesaid therapeutic regimens have definite bearings on oestrus induction as well as on conception and can be used to manage postpartum anoestrus in cows. Rajesh Kumar Jitendra Kumar Sushant Srivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 17 21 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.4 Adoption Status of Improved Animal Husbandry Practices and its Relationship with the Profile of Dairy Farmers in Kheda District of Gujarat This study was conducted to ascertain the extent of adoption of improved dairy husbandry practices and its relationship with the profile of the dairy farmers in the Kheda district of Gujarat. The study was undertaken in four randomly selected talukas of the district, from which 100 dairy farmers were selected randomly. The study revealed that the overall extent of adoption of improved animal husbandry practices in the study area was found to be about 62.78%. The overall highest adoption rate was for reproductive and healthcare management (81.40 and 81.33%) followed by feeding and calf management (77.00 and 62.00%), while the adoption of scientific milking and general management (37.60 and 37.30%) was the lowest. Education, landholding, annual income, and herd size of the dairy farmers had a highly significant (p less than 0.01) positive relationship. In comparison, social participation and mass media of the dairy farmers had significant (p less than 0.05) positive relationship with adoption of improved animal husbandry practices. However, family size, experience, and attitude towards dairy farming had a significant negative correlation with the improved animal husbandry practices. The independent variables considered in the present study explained about 38.20% variation (r2 = 0.38) in adoption of the improved dairy husbandry practices. Bharat S. Divekar Manoj M Trivedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 22 26 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.5 Isolation, Biochemical Characterization, Antibiogram Pattern and PCR Based Confirmation of Brucella from Cows and Buffaloes Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease that still constitutes a major public health problem in India. In the current study, Brucella were isolated from aborted samples and typed by both molecular and conventional techniques. A total 114 aborted samples were collected from cows and buffaloes in and around Anand district. Aborted samples were cultured on the Brucella agar medium and incubated for 24–48 h. Three samples from cow were found to be positive for Brucella. All the isolates were positive for catalase, oxidase and nitrate reduction while negative for urease reaction, indole test, VP test, motility examination and production of H2S. For the detection of Brucella DNA by PCR, three different genus-specific primer pairs viz., B4/B5, JPF/JPR, and F4/R2 were used. All three Brucella isolates were positive by B4/B5 and F4/R2, while two isolates were positive for JPF/JPR. For species-level identification of Brucella isolates were subjected to AMOS PCR and Bruce-ladder PCR, and were found to be B. abortus. Ritesh N. Patel Ashish Roy Bharat B Bhanderi Dhaval H Vagheshwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 27 31 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.6 In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin in Coastal Areas of South Gujarat, India A total of 2617 bovines (1682 cattle and 935 buffaloes) of coastal districts (Bharuch, Surat, Navsari and Valsad) of South Gujarat were screened for tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, the most economically important ectoparasite of bovines worldwide. Farmers chiefly relied on chemical acaricides (67.52%) to kill the ticks, and under chemical method 44.09, 24.17, 30.50 and 1.24 % animals had received cypermethrin, deltamethrin, ivermectin and fipronil, respectively, thus favouring the resistance. In adult immersion test (AIT), the median lethal concentration (LC50) was 144.23, 93.97, 141.67 and 57.89 ppm for deltamethrin in Bharuch, Surat, Navsari and Valsad district, respectively. Resistance level was I in Valsad and II in other 3 districts for deltamethrin in AIT. In larval packet test (LPT), the median LC50 was 297.29, 126.81, 127.83 and 93.92 ppm for deltamethrin in Bharuch, Surat, Navsari and Valsad district, respectively. Resistance level was III in Bharuch and II in other district in LPT. Dharmesh C Patel Jayesh B Solanki Niranjan Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 16 01 32 36 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.7 Effect of Different Floor Types on Growth Performance and Feed Conversion Ratio of Mehsana Goat Kids This study was done to evaluate the effect of different floor types on growth performance and feed conversion ratio of weaned Mehsana goat kids for a period of 84 days. Twenty-seven weaned (3 months old) Mehsana goat kids having nearly identical body weights (10-12 kg) were randomly divided into three uniform groups having 9 kids (4 males and 5 females) in each group and reared on three different types of floors, viz., group A: katcha floor, B: bricks floor, and C: concrete floor. All the kids were reared under standard management system of goat rearing with strict hygiene and various parameters of production performance were recorded. Mean body weights in kids of groups A, B and C were 13.56±0.25, 13.60±0.26, and 13.87±0.27 kg, respectively. The corresponding average daily body weight gains were 35.89±2.74, 34.08±2.24, 39.23±4.10 g/day and feed conversion ratio 09.95±0.70, 08.99±0.52, 08.92±0.81, respectively. The differences among treatment groups were found non-significant for all three parameters. Incidences of disease occurrence and parasitic infestation were not noticed in kids of any group. It may be concluded that provision of different floor types, viz., katcha, bricks and concrete had no significant effect on growth performance, feed conversion ratio, disease incidence and parasitic infestation in the Mehsana kids. Further, from the study it may be inferred that economically weaker farmers may rear their kids on katcha floor with strict hygiene and attain the growth rate at par with other flooring systems. Jigar V. Patel Haresh D Chauhan Amit Kumar Srivastava Mahesh M Pawar Vikram K Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 16 01 37 40 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.8 Rapid Detection based Prevalence of Canine Corona Virus (CCoV) and Canine Parvo Virus (CPV) Infection in Diarrheic Dogs in South Gujarat The study was done on detection and prevalence of canine coronavirus (CCoV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) from the diarrhoeic dogs. Dogs presented with the diarrhoea and symptomatic illness, were tested for the CCoV and CPV infection. Diarrhoeic samples were directly processed for rapid diagnostic test using Immuno-chromatography based lateral flow assay test (LFA). It is a fast, rapid and specific for the CCoV and CPV detection. Out of total 109 samples processed by the LFA, 05 (4.58 %) were found positive for CCoV and 37 (33.94%) were positive for CPV. None of the samples showed concomitant infection of both the viruses. Age-wise prevalence of CCoV was found to be 7.93 (5/63) % in ≤3 months age group, and no positive case was found in other age groups. Similarly, the age wise prevalence of CPV was found to be 41.26 (26/63), 25.00 (9/26) and 20.00 (2/10) % in ≤3 months, 3 to 6 months and 6 to 12 months of age group, respectively. The prevalence of CCoV and CPV was found more in young puppies. Dhruv Desai Irshadullahkha Kalyani Dharmesh Patel Pushpa Makwana Jayesh Solanki Jignesh Vala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 16 01 41 43 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.9 Effect of Weaning Age on Carcass Characteristics of Crossbred Piglets Reared under Intensive System and Slaughtered at 70 Kilogram Body Weight This study investigated the effect of weaning age on carcass characteristics of crossbred piglets reared up to 70 kg body weight (BW) under intensive system. A total of 24 piglets were used in a completely randomized design. The experiment comprised three treatments: piglets weaned at 21, 28, and 35 days of age with four replicates each with two piglets (castrate and female). At 70 kg BW two piglets (castrate and female) were randomly selected from each replicate and sacrificed for carcass evaluation. Hot carcass weight (HCW) was measured and thereafter dressing out percentage was calculated. Carcasses were chilled at 7 0C for 24 hours to determine cold dressed weight (CDW). Carcasses were cut into the left and right halves along the median line. The left half of the carcass was used to measure carcass length (CRLTH), average backfat depth and longissimus muscle area (LMA) at the 10th rib, while the right half of the carcass was physically dissected into bone, muscle and fat and thereafter tissue ratios calculated. Longissimus muscle was removed at the 10th and 11th ribs from the left half of the carcass for chemical composition analysis. Data were analysed using General Linear Model. Weaning age had no influence (p > 0.05) on HCW, dressing percentage, CDW, CRLTH, average backfat thickness, average backfat depth, LMA and carcass lean percentage. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed on average percentages of bone, muscle and fat tissue and their tissue ratios. Weaning age did not influence (p > 0.05) moisture, protein, fat and ash contents of the meat. In addition, weaning age had no (p > 0.05) effect on carcass characteristics, physical and chemical body composition of meat. These results indicate that piglets can be weaned at 21, 28 and 35 days of age without detrimental effects on carcass characteristics, physical and chemical body composition of pork. John Cassius Moreki Theresa Theresia Montsho J. A. Patel Christopher Mareledi Tsopito Shalaulani James Nsoso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 44 48 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.10 Factors Affecting Conception Rate in AI Bred Cattle under Field Conditions of Maharashtra Data on 98336 artificial inseminations (AI) performed during 6 years (January 2010 to November 2015) on 56037 field animals owned by 29097 farmers’ from 44 cattle development centres spread across two districts of Maharashtra state were collected and analyzed. Whole data set was classified according to districts (Beed, Jalgaon), economic status of farmers (APL, BPL), animal breed (HF cross, Indigenous, Jersey cross, Non-descript), parity of animal (heifer, first, second, third, fourth, fifth calvers), animal body condition score (no rib exposed, one rib exposed, two ribs exposed, three ribs exposed), heat stage (early, mid, late), season of AI (rainy-June to September, winter-October to January, summer-February to May), bull breed used for AI ( HF, HF crossbreed, Jersey, Jersey crossbreed, Indigenous), AI sequence number (1,2,3) and AI Year (2010 to 2015). Least square analysis was used to compute conception rate. The results revealed overall mean conception rate as 46.2 ± 0.51% and it was significantly (p les than 0.01) higher in Beed district, Jersey crossbreed animals, animals having fourth parity, animals exhibiting one rib exposed, early heat and animals inseminated with Indigenous breed bulls semen, first AI sequence number and during the year 2015 compared with respective groups of parameters under study. However, effect of season of AI and economic condition of farmers did not affect conception rate in animals under field conditions of Maharashtra. VV Potdar Sachin Joshi Marimuthu Swaminathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 49 53 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.11 Relative Gene Expression Study on Casein Protein and its Regulatory Genes in Mammary Epithelial Cells of Surti Goat This investigation was carried out to study the relative gene expression of casein proteins and its regulatory genes in mammary epithelial cells of Surti goats at 30 and 90 days interval postpartum. 10 healthy Surti goats were selected from Livestock Research Station, Navsari. The non-invasive method was used for the isolation of Mammary Epithelial Cells (MEC) from goat milk samples. The relative gene expression of CSN1S1 (αs1-casein), CSN1S2 (αs2-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN3 (κ-casein) and its regulatory genes C/EBP and STAT5A genes and KRT14 (epithelial cell marker) gene were studied in MEC. The relative gene expression of CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN3 and C/EBP genes were significantly up-regulated with the advancement of lactation at 90 days postpartum. The relative gene expression of CSN2 was highly significant and had a positive correlation with its regulatory genes C/EBP and STAT5A at 30 days and 90 days, respectively. The relative gene expression of CSN1S2, CSN3, and C/EBP genes was positively correlated with protein percent at 30 days and 90 days postpartum in Surti goats. Mamta Janmeda Gaurav Pandya Umed Ramani Balkrushna Brahmkshtri Navin Patel Vishnu Kharadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 54 57 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.12 Epidemiology and Haemato-Biochemical Changes in Mange Infested Camels Mange in camel, also named as sarcopticosis is defined as an extremely contagious skin disease characterized by scab formation, pruritic dermatitis, thickening and corrugation of skin and hair loss. A total of 21 positive cases of mange infestation were selected from those presented at the Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College, in Anand and from surrounding villages. The affected camels were divided into 3 groups, viz., B, C, D each group comprised of 7 camels, while seven healthy camels in group A served as control. The maximum prevalence of sarcoptic mange among infected animals was found in the age group of >6 years (52.38 %), followed by 4-6 years (38.09 %) and in less than 3 years age groups (9.52 %), and also in females than the males (85.71 vs 14.29%). The levels of haematological values, viz., haemoglobin, total erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, neutrophils, basophils, MCV and MCH were found to be significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased, whereas the total leukocytes count, lymphocytes and eosinophils were increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in mange affected camel as compared to healthy ones. The biochemical constituents, viz., total serum protein, alanine aminotransferase and zinc concentrations were found significantly (p less than 0.05) lower. In contrast, serum creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and copper concentrations were increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in mange affected camels. The changes reflected that the mange infestation causes hepatocellular and renal damage, apart from general stress to the camel. Nidhi R Pandya Ghanshyam C Mandali Keshank M Dave ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 58 61 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.13 Migratory Sheep Farming Practices in Cauvery Delta Zone in Tamil Nadu Migratory sheep, due to its movement, poses threat of spreading diseases among small ruminants. Considering this, the study was carried out to identify the focus area of extension intervention among the migratory sheep farmers to disseminate scientifically recommended practices which minimize disease risk and enhance flock health. The study was conducted following ex post fact research design at Venganur village, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu. Using a semi-structured interview schedule, data were personally collected from 30 migratory sheep farmers who were selected purposively. The findings were subjected to focussed group interview involving seven farmers. The results envisaged a wider difference among the farmers from 100 per cent non-adoption of balanced ration to 100.00 per cent adoption of deworming. Therefore, extension interventions need to be intensified to educate the farmers on technologies which help in disease prevention and control. Mahesh Chander MS Kannadhasan D Bardhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 62 65 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.14 Incidence of Reproductive Disorders in Cattle and Buffalo under Field Conditions in Eastern Plain Zone of Uttar Pradesh This study was conducted in the Barabanki district of Uttar Pradesh on reproductive disorders in cattle and buffaloes under field conditions. The information was generated from 120 farmers, 20 farmers from each of six selected villages, who had at least one milking dairy animal at the time of the investigation. The information was generated regarding reproductive disorders of indigenous cattle, crossbred cattle, and buffalo due to improper feeding, breeding, and healthcare management practices and was analyzed to explore the incidence rate of reproductive disorders faced by dairy farmers in three categories of animals. The overall incidence rate of reproductive disorders among indigenous cattle, crossbred cattle, and buffalo in the area surveyed revealed maximum incidence in buffalo (76.05 %) and minimum in indigenous cattle (48.77 %), the crossbreds being intermediate (72.62 %). Late maturity was the major problem in indigenous cattle and anoestrus in buffalo. The incidence of repeat breeding was the highest in crossbred cattle. Dystocia, prolapse and stillbirth were more in buffaloes, while abortion, RFM, and uterine infections were more in crossbred cattle. Reproductive disorders like dystocia, prolapse, abortion and stillbirth were mostly treated by veterinarians; however, remaining reproductive disorders like anoestrus, repeat breeding, uterine infection etc. were treated by dairy farmers and quacks through their own experiences by using different type of indigenous technical knowledge. There is a need to create awareness about scientific animal husbandry practices among dairy farmers of the region studied. HC Verma Ashoo1, Rakesh Kumar Singh Rajesh Kumar Ramakant . Raj Pal Diwakar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 66 68 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.15 Congenital Hydrocephalic Monster in an Indigenous Gir Calf: A Case Report There are several types of fetal dropsy (fetal ascites, fetal anasarca, fetal hydrocephalus), which have obstetrical importance preventing normal easy delivery of calf. Hydrocephalus is one of the fetal causes of dystocia. It is characterized by an accumulation of fluid which may be in the ventricular system or between the brain and the subarachnoid space. The swelling or enlargement of cranium occurs as a result of an imbalance between formation and drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (Arthur et al., 2001). This congenital dropsical condition is associated with an autosomal recessive gene, whereas some cases are due to BVD-MD or bluetongue virus infection in bovine (Roberts, 1986). Though this dropsical condition is rare in Gir cattle, it is reported in many other species (Dhami et al., 2007; Kumar et al., 2010; Parmar et al., 2018). The present case report depicts an unusual instance of hydrocephalic monster in an indigenous Gir calf, causing dystocia, which was successfully managed by per vaginum. DN Borakhatariya Rupesh J Raval Karsan B Vala Bakti P Chavda Sanny G Prajapati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 69 70 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.16 Ischaemic Necrosis of Pinnae in a Dachshund Dog – A Report Ischaemic necrosis or thrombo-vascular necrosis of pinnae or pinnal margin vasculopathy is a slowly progressive idiopathic syndrome characterized by wedge-shaped devitalization and necrosis of the distal pinnae. It may occur either in unilateral or bilateral forms, bilateral affection being more common. Initially, an erythematous swelling and discoloration may be noted in the center of the medial aspect towards the apex of pinnae. Later, a necrotic ulcer may be seen in the center of the lesion, progressing to exudation and hemorrhage. In chronic cases, the areas of ulceration undergo complete necrosis resulting in deformity. Although there is no age, sex, and breed predisposition, certain breeds like Dachshunds and Chihuahuas are commonly affected (Morris et al., 2013; Nuttall et al., 2005). This communication reports a case of ischaemic necrosis of pinnae in a Dachshund dog with its successful clinical management. N Madhavan Unny MR Krishna Nath Usha Narayan Pillai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 71 72 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.17 Postpartum Uterine Prolapse in a Goat and its Successful Management Postpartum uterine prolapse occurs in all animal species. It is most common in cows and ewe, less common in the doe and rare in the mare. It is an eversion of the uterus, which turns inside out as it passes through the vagina. Prolapse of uterus generally occurs immediately after or a few hours of parturition when the cervix is open, and the uterus lacks tone (Hanie, 2006). The prolapse is visible as a large mass protruding from the vulva, often hanging down below the animal’s hock. The etiology of uterine prolapse is not yet fully known. Hormonal imbalance, hypocalcemia, mineral imbalances, injuries or stretching of birth passage, excessive traction at assisted parturition, dystocia or forceful removal of fetal membranes may contribute to the occurrence of prolapse (Hanie, 2006; Jackson, 2004). Animals with uterine prolapse should be treated promptly; otherwise, it may lead to edema, ischemia, laceration, internal hemorrhage (Noakes et al., 2001), prostration, and shock making prognosis poor to hopeless. The success of treatment depends on the type of case, the degree of damage, and contamination. The present case highlights the successful management of postpartum uterine prolapse in a goat. Bhoopendra Singh Kaushalendra Pratap Singh Rajesh Kumar Shubhendra Vikram Singh Safayat Husain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 73 74 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.18 Successful Retrieval of Fish Hook From Indian Flap-Shelled Turtle (Lissemys punctata) via Intra-oral Approach Lissemys punctata, an Indian flap-shelled turtle is a fresh water species found widespread and common in South Asia. Injuries due to entangled fish hook is the most common affection reported in these species (Balazs and Poley, 1993). Because fresh water turtles are opportunistic scavengers and also take live prey, they are most likely vulnerable to capture with baited hooks set to catch fish (Howey and Dinkelacker, 2013). The present case report discusses the retrieval and management of an entangled fish hook in an Indian flap-shelled turtle. Deepesh Gautam Deepa Singh Adesh Kumar Sarit Kumar Patra Manoj Kumar Ahirwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 16 01 75 76 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.19 Surgical Management of Urolithiasis in a Male Labrador: A Case Report Urinary stones (urolithiasis) are a common condition responsible for lower urinary tract disease in dogs. The formation of calculi is associated with precipitation and crystal formation of a variety of minerals. Urinary calculi can damage the lining of the urinary tract, causing inflammation, which may predispose to bacterial infection. If calculi become lodged in the ureter, causing an obstruction, it may result in serious kidney damage. Unilateral ureteral obstruction may result in hydronephrosis with loss of function of the kidney. Urine retention may rupture the bladder with distension of the renal capsule (Tion et al., 2015 and Mudasir et al., 2018). So, an urgent cystotomy for removal of uroliths is the most commonly performed surgical procedure to save the life of the pets. Chhotan Kumar Ghosh Subhasis Roy Pradip Sarkar Anil Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-16 2020-08-16 16 01 77 79 10.21887/ijvsbt.16.1.20