THE INDIAN JOURNAL OF VETERINARY SCIENCES AND BIOTECHNOLOGY <p><strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (IJVSBT)&nbsp;</strong><strong> is published by the </strong><strong>Society for Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (SVSBT)&nbsp; Indore (M.P.) </strong></p> <p><strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (IJVSBT)&nbsp;</strong>is an Open Access online and print journal, that publishes Original Articles, Review Articles, Short Communications and Case Reports in all areas of Veterinary Science and its related subjects.&nbsp; Previously the journal was published as <strong>The Indian Journal of Field Veterinarians</strong> which is renamed as <strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology</strong> in 2015 and was only print version till April –June issue Vol 11-4 (2016) and is converted into an Open Access online and print journal since July-Sept issue&nbsp; Vol 12-1 (2016).</p> <p><strong>The Indian Journal of Veterinary Sciences &amp; Biotechnology (IJVSBT)</strong> is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that aims to publish high-quality papers rapidly and makes them freely available to researchers worldwide.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>pISSN&nbsp;</strong>2394-0247(Print), e<strong>ISSN</strong>&nbsp;2395-1176 (Print and Online ) <strong>Abbreviated title:&nbsp;</strong>IJVSBT</p> en-US (Managing Editor) (Rohit Jaiswal) Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Pathogenicity of E. coli O78 Riemerella anatipestifer Chicken Isolate either alone or in combination in Ducks <p>The objective of this study was to find the relation between the pathogenicity of (E. coli) O78 chicken isolate alone or mixed with Riemerella anatipestifer infection by conventional methods and modern techniques. The results of this study revealed that the pathogenicity of all groups of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) was 100% while it was 90% among the ducks inoculated with E. coli and was 100% in the injected with both strains of Riemerella anatipestifer and E. coli together and 0% in the control negative group. RA and E. coli strains were correctly identified using the VITEK 2 compact system with 99% and 94% probability, respectively. The results of polymerase chain reaction confirmed the identification results using specific primers either for E. coli O78 or Riemerella anatipestifer giving products 720bp and 665bp, respectively. Histopathological examination revealed that liver showed congestion in blood vessels and hepatic cell necrosis in the group inoculated within Riemerella anatipestifer, While liver showed only congested blood vessels in E. coli inoculated group. On the other hand, Liver showed severe vacuolar degeneration with focal amyloid infiltration in E. coli and Riemerella inoculated group.</p> Afaf Ahmed Khedr, Eman M Soliman, Fatma E Zahraa Gamal, Fatma Mohmed, Gina M Mohamed, Marwa Fathy El Sayed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Multilocus Sequence Typing of Pasturella multocida Isolates from Different Animal Species The present study was carried out to characterize six Pasteurella multocida isolates obtained from sheep, duck, pig, cow, poultry, and P. multocida P52 vaccine strain by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). All the isolates were first confirmed positive for P. multocida by culturally first and then by a biochemical method. The Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNAs) were extracted from the isolates and PM-PCR was carried out, which confirmed all the isolates as P. multocida, and further studied for capsular typing. Among them three isolates of P. multocida were typed as capsular type A (sheep, duck and poultry), and the other two were typed as capsular type B (cow and pig). Specific primers and protocols described in the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC) MLST scheme for P. multocida were used to amplify the seven house-keeping genes, viz., adk, est, pmi, zwf, mdh, gdh, and pgi. The purified PCR products were subjected to sequencing by Sanger's method. The total length sequences of genes were trimmed to the length of 466 bp, 535 bp, 602 bp, 500 bp, 521 bp, 530 bp, and 560 bp for adk, est, pmi, zwf, mdh, gdh and pgi genes, respectively, as described in the RIRDC MLST scheme. Isolates of sheep, duck, pig, cattle, poultry, PAS-506/06, PAD-914/11, PAP-721/09, PAC-93/15, PAP-87/13 and P52 vaccine strain were grouped to sequence type 122, 307, 308, 309, 129 and 122, respectively. Sneha J Mistry, Bharat B Bhanderi, Ashish Roy, Rafiyuddin A Mathakiya, Mayurdhvaj K Jhala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Biochemical Alterations and Fertility Response to Ovsynch Protocol in Repeat Breeding Crossbred Cows with Prolonged Estrus The present study was conducted to determine the biochemical profile and fertility response in repeat breeder crossbred cows having normal and prolonged estrus by using ovsynch protocol. Total 20 crossbred cows, not conceiving even after more than four services were selected from the semi-arid area of Banaskantha district in Gujarat. They were divided into two equal groups: Group-I (n=10) - cows with prolonged estrus period (>28 hrs) and Group-II (n = 10) - cows with normal estrus period (18 to 28 hrs). The animals of both groups were treated with ovsynch protocol starting from 5th day of estrous cycle using GnRH-PG-GnRH (20, 500 and 20 μg) on day 0, 7 and 9 with FTAI on day 10. The blood was collected on day 0, 7th, 9th, and 25th (15th day post-FTAI) of the treatment to determine plasma glucose, total protein and total cholesterol. Pre-treatment mean duration of estrus in Group-I and Group-II cows was 84.60 ± 5.35 and 25.60 ± 2.79 hrs, respectively, and it declined significantly (p less than 0.05) following ovsynch treatment (39.80 ± 5.56 hrs) in Group-I, although estrous cycle lengths were identical in both the groups. The conception rates in group I and II were 60 and 70%, respectively. The cows with prolonged estrus had significantly lower mean blood glucose concentration than those with normal estrus, and the level was also significantly lower on day 9th (induced estrus) in both the groups. The plasma total protein concentration was significantly lower on 0, 9th, and 25th day in Group-I than in Group-II. A non-significant difference existed for protein levels within the conceived crossbred cows, whereas the difference was significant within non-conceived crossbred cows. The overall plasma cholesterol concentration was non-significantly higher in Group-I than the Group-II. Blood glucose, plasma protein and plasma total cholesterol concentrations differed non-significantly between the conceived and non-conceived crossbred cows at all periods in both the groups. Dhaval N Patel, Haresh C Nakhashi, Tarun V Sutaria, Ravji K Chaudhari, Prakash M Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancy using Diethylstilbestrol in Mismated Bitches Efficiency of diethylstilbestrol (DES) was evaluated for preventing unwanted pregnancy following misalliance in eight bitches of different breeds, age, and bodyweight along with use of vaginal cytology on the day of case registration for retrospective confirmation of stage of estrous cycle and time of mating. All the bitches were injected with diethylstilbestrol (DES) @ 2.0 mg/kg b. wt., i/m (Max. 20 mg) on day three and five post-mating and were subjected to blood examination on day zero and seven of DES injection. An ultra-sonographic scan was carried out in each of the bitch on day 30-35 post-mating to rule out the pregnancy status of the animal and success of therapy. All the bitches were followed up for 70-100 days post-treatment for any untoward effects. The major exfoliative cells found in vaginal cytology were of large intermediate/anuclear cells (94.37 ± 0.57 %) characteristics of a peak estrus phase, and 6 of 8 bitches also showed presence of sperm in the smear evinced mating. All the bitches were found to be non-pregnant on USG scan 30-35 days post-treatment and had no serious side effect during the follow-up period. The pre- and post-treatment mean values of hemoglobin (g/dL), WBCs (×103/μL) and RBCs (×106/μL) were 15.58 ± 0.59 vs. 15.33 ± 0.60, 9.10 ± 0.44 vs. 11.33 ± 1.60 and 6.94 ± 0.12 vs. 6.83 ± 0.22, respectively, differing non-significantly. It was concluded that the exfoliative vaginal cytology in bitches having fully cornified superficial/anuclear cells as predominant cells with sperm presence indicates misalliance during estrus phase. Injection diethylstilbestrol twice could prevent the conception and establishment of pregnancy in bitches having misalliance, with minimal effect on their health. Bhanusinh M Parmar, Mahesh T Panchal, Tejas B Shukla, Jagdish A Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Different Roofing Material on Body Weight and Feed Intake of Indigenous Sheep under Stall Feeding System The present study was conducted to assess the effect of roof on body weight and feed intake of sheared and non-sheared sheep under stall feeding system in the hot dry season. Adult dry indigenous sheep (24) were distributed randomly into two treatment groups, i.e., T1: asbestos roof and T2: agro - net roof. Each treatment comprised of six sheared and six non-sheared animals. Sheep were provided with total mixed ration in morning, afternoon and night individually. The bodyweight of sheared (31.87 ± 2.14, 31.96 ± 1.55 kg) and non-sheared (32.16 ± 1.59, 32.42 ± 1.42 kg) animals was comparable between roof treatments. The experimental animals reared under agro-net roofed shelter consumed significantly (p less than 0.05) more dry matter and nutrients as compared to animals reared under asbestos roofed shelter. Dry matter and nutrient intake of sheared sheep were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher as compared to non-sheared sheep under agronet and asbestos roofed shelter. The results indicated that the sheep can be reared comfortably under agronet roof without affecting feed and nutrient intake. Malhar Khant, Nitin R Patel, Rakesh J Modi, Kishan N Wadhwani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Prevalence of Major Reproductive Disorders in Canines with Reference to Age, Sex and Breed in Central Gujarat A retrospective study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of various reproductive disorders attended over the last three years (2017-20) at VCC, Anand in either sex of canine. Screening of 9963 case records revealed 602 (6.04 %) cases of gynecological disorders and 23 (0.23 %) cases of andrological disorders. The highest cases in female dogs were of pregnancy diagnosis (30.89 %), followed in descending order by pyometra (25.41 %), mammary tumor (11.46 %), CTVG (7.81 %), spaying (5.65 %), pseudo-pregnancy (4.32 %), dystocia (3.32 %), vaginal prolapse (2.99 %), misalliance (2.32 %), abortion (0.99 %), normal whelping (0.49 %) and miscellaneous (3.82 %). Among the male dogs, the highest cases were of venereal granuloma (21.74 %), followed by phimosis (17.39 %), balanoposthitis (13.04 %), prostate enlargement (13.04 %), scrotal edema (13.04 %), castration (8.69 %), testicular hyperplasia (4.35 %), testicular tumor (4.35 %) and orchitis (4.35 %). The breeds most prone to gynecological disorders were Labrador (29.57 %), followed by Mongrel (22.42 %), Pomeranian (11.79 %), German Shepherd (11.46 %), Pug (6.64 %), Rottweiler (6.15 %), Doberman (3.50 %), Golden Retriever (3.17 %), and others. Similarly, the highest occurrence of gynecological cases was found in bitches of 0-3 years age group (46.84 %), followed by 4-6 years (23.75 %), 7-9 years (14.29 %) and 10-12 years of age (11.30 %). The higher gynecological cases recorded in Labrador and Mongrel breeds and in younger age groups of dogs could be due to the higher gross population of these animals in the study area of central Gujarat. Hardik D Hadiya, Dipak M Patel, Jignesh J Parmar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Ovarian Follicular Dynamics, and Hormonal and Biochemical Profile in Post-Pubertal and Postpartum Jaffrabadi Buffaloes Jaffrabadi buffalo is one of the heaviest buffalo breeds of the world (800 kg) and is known for poor reproductive efficiency. There is a scarcity of normal physiological data regarding reproductive parameters of Jaffrabadi buffalo. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate ovarian follicular dynamics, hormonal and biochemical profiles in 10 post-pubertal heifers (n=5 each of age 42±2 and 48±2 months) and five >90 days postpartum lactating buffaloes. Ultrasound monitoring of ovaries of animals was done at weekly interval and all follicles with diameter less than 4 mm (small follicles), 4-8 mm (medium follicles) and greater than 8 mm (large follicles) as well as CLs identified were recorded. Blood samples were also collected soon after each USG from all animals for assay of hormonal and biochemical profiles. The findings revealed that the average number of small, medium and large follicles, total number of follicles per ovary as well as diameters of largest and subordinate follicles varied greatly among periods between three groups. The size of corpus luteum ranged from 13.7 to 21.2 mm, 13.7 to 23.9 mm and 15.3 to 22.7 mm, respectively, in Group-I, II and III. In the first week of study, significantly higher (p less than 0.05) average numbers of small follicles in Group-I and III, and medium follicles and total numbers of follicles in Group-III were observed as compared to other groups. The diameter of largest follicles and subordinate follicles were non-significantly different among all groups at all periods of the study. Plasma estrogen levels were significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in Group-I as compared to Group-III and Group-II on first and second week, however, it increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in Group-II and I on fourth week of study period. Plasma insulin concentrations were significantly (p less than 0.01) lower in buffaloes (Group-III) than in heifers (Group-I and II) throughout the study period, while plasma total cholesterol and total protein levels were higher in Group-III on 3rd to 5th weeks of study. Further, there were no significant differences in the plasma FSH, LH, progesterone and blood glucose levels in animals of three groups between periods at any of the week. The ultrasonographic and endocrine profile suggested establishment of cyclicity with silent ovulation. However, the behavioural estrus was still not manifested by these post-pubertal heifers and postpartum lactating buffaloes. These results are helpful to diagnose anovulatory conditions and/or true anestrus and initiate estrus synchronization protocols for early conception in Jaffrabadi buffaloes. Rupesh J Raval, Kiran H Parmar, Arjun J Dhami, Fulabhai S Kavani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Characterization of Antigenic Property of Adult Spirocerca lupi Collected from Esophageal Nodules in Dogs Spirocerca lupi, the esophageal nematode of dog , causes a potentially fatal disease in domestic dogs. Immunological techniques can identify the parasite proteins which elicit an immune response. However, the antigenic properties of S. lupi adult worms have not been fully understood. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the S. lupi somatic antigens showed 7 prominent immunoreactive bands of distinct sizes at 199, 148, 100, 87, 49, 16, and 12 kDa, whereas 8 prominent bands at 230, 200, 100, 60, 49, 29, 16, and 12 kDa against hyper immune serum raised in the rabbits. Common antigen bands for both types of serum were observed at 100, 49 , 16 and 12 kDa. Intriguingly, the current study was able to indicate the detailed antigenic profile with specific molecular moieties which might be a manifesto for future investigation. Identified specific antigens merit further analysis as potential tools for the evaluation of treatment success and prognosis of spirocercosis, and development of a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for early detection of S. lupi in infected dogs. Suranji Wijekoon, Niranjala De Silva, Nayana Wijayawardhane, Madura Munasinghe, Jayanthe Rajapakse ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Season and Year of Birth on Pubertal Age, Body Weight and Scrotal Circumference of Kankrej Bulls at First Semen Collection Data on 26 bulls of Kankrej cattle (birth date from 2006 to 2017) inducted at a semen station from 2010 to 2020 were analyzed to study the effects of season and year of birth on age, body weight and scrotal circumference of bull at first semen collection. The overall least-squares means for age, body weight, and scrotal circumference of bulls at first semen collection were 1122.36 ± 86.9 days, 537.69 ± 10.51 kg and 30.86 ± 1.60 cm. Non-genetic factors like season and year of birth did not contribute significantly (p>0.05) to these parameters’ variations. Results of the study revealed well adaptation of Kankrej cattle breed to seasonal changes and farm management took care of yearly variation in such a way that age, body weight and scrotal circumference of Kankrej bulls at first semen collection did not vary significantly. Nikhil S Dangar, Balkrishna P Brahmkshtri, Lalit C Modi, Umed V Ramani, Vishnu B Kharadi, Chandubhai T Khasatiya, Gaurav M Pandya, Niteen Deshmukh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Heat Stress on Sperm Production, Oxidative Markers and their Association in Native Breeding Bulls The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of climatic conditions on fortnightly semen quality and its oxidative markers, and to evaluate the correlation between them in zebu cattle and buffalo breeding bulls under weekly twice semen collection schedule. The macro- (observatory; daily; n=330) and micro- (bull shed; hourly; n=8540) climatic parameters, viz., ambient temperature (AT °C) and relative humidity (RH %) were measured during Jan to Dec 2018 and temperature humidity index (THI) was generated. There were high associations between micro and macro AT (r=0.982), RH (r=0.897) and THI (r=0.985). Overall, micro-AT was 1.20°C higher, micro-RH was 5.42% lower and the micro-THI was 0.50 higher than the corresponding macro-climatic parameters. Therefore effect of micro-climatic AT, RH and THI was evaluated on biweekly collected 26 ejaculates of three bulls each of Surti, Murrah buffalo and Gir cattle breeds. The macro and microscopic parameters of semen and oxidative markers in seminal plasma, viz., catalase, lipid peroxidation (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined. During the day 72.6% of hours, bulls experienced stress (THI > 72). No impact of season was observed on seminal attributes and oxidative markers of cattle and buffalo bulls, however correlation coefficients were achieved. The results of our study warrants further investigation on more number of bulls including their semen freezability and fertility. Arjun J Dhami, Vishal S Suthar, Dinesh V Chaudhari, Kamlesh K Hadiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Concurrent infection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in synanthropic rodents: First report from Punjab, India The present morphometric coproscopic study was aimed to investigate the protozoan infections in synanthropic rodents of urban areas from Punjab. Faecal samples of total 65 rodents of two species i.e. the house rat, Rattus rattus (n=40) and the lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis (n=25) collected from residences/shops, poultry farms and fish market at Ludhiana (Punjab), India were examined by formaldehyde–ether sedimentation and modified kinyoun acid fast stain for the presence of protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 32.30% rats comprising 36% B. bengalensis and 30% R. rattus. Morphometric examination of the acid-fast stained faecal smear revealed ovoid oocysts (average size of 7.70-9.8 x 5.5-7.0 μm) of Cryptosporidium whose morphology resembled that of C. muris. Precysts/cysts of Giardia sp. were also identified in 4.61% of the stained faecal smears. This is the first report of concurrent C. muris and Giardia sp. infections in synanthropic rodents of urban domestic and peridomestic area of Punjab, India. Sukhmanpreet Kaur Brar, Neena R Singla, Lachhman Das Singla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Roofing Materials on Hemato-Biochemical, Hormonal and Antioxidant Profile of Sheared and Non-Sheared Sheep The effect of roofing material on hemato-biochemical, hormonal and antioxident parameters of sheared and non-sheared sheep was invastigated. Twenty four adult dry indigenous sheep were distributed randomly on the basis of body weight (20-35 kg) into two roof treatment groups, i.e., T1: asbestos roof and T2: agronet roof. Each treatment comprised of six sheared and six non-sheared animals. Hemoglobin (g/dL) and PCV (%) concentrations of sheep were comparable between roof treatments and between shearing practices. Serum glucose level was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in sheared and non sheared sheep reared under asbestose roof (44.76 ± 0.31, 45.29 ± 0.31 mg/dl) than the agronet roof shelter (43.78 ± 0.31, 43.46 ± 0.33 mg/dl). Serum uric acid level was significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased in sheared animals reared under agronet roofed shelter as compared to non-sheared animals reared under abstestos roofed shelter (0.41 ± 0.05 vs. 0.55 ± 0.06 mg/dL). Serum urea and creatinine levels of sheared sheep were lower than non-sheared ones under both the roofing materials with significant difference only in creatinine. The serum levels of hormone T3 and cortisol were statistically similar between roof treatments and shearing practices, whereas serum T4 was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in sheared animals (37.19 ± 3.17 ng/ml) reared under asbestos roofed shelter compared to agronet. Glutathione peroxidase activity was increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in sheared and non-sheared animals reared under asbestos roofed shelter, whereas superoxide dismutase activity decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) in sheared animals under agronet roof (5.73 ± 0.27 U/ml). However, lipid hydroperoxide, catalase and heat shock protein 70 activity were neither influenced significantly by roofing materials nor by shearing practices. The results indicated the role of effective roofing material of shelter and shearing plans in reducing the effect of heat stress on sheared and unsheared sheep. Malhar Khant, Rakesh J Modi, Nitin R Patel, Kishan N Wadhwani, Mohsin M Pathan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Haemato-Biochemical Alterations in Dogs with Vomition Vomition is a common clinical presentation in small animal practice and may be associated with gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. Fifty cases of vomition in dogs were studied at Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College in Anand during the period of six months for clinical and haemato-biochemical alterations in comparison to 8 normal healthy dogs. Among 50 dogs, the incidence of vomiting possibly due to Parvo viral infection, pyometra, renal disorders, encylostoma infection, pseudo-pregnancy, hepatic disorders, thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia and dietary abnormalities was in 44.0, 2.0, 14.0, 14.0, 2.0, 4.0, 2.0, 14.0 and 4.0 % cases, respectively. The levels of PCV, TLC and basophils were increased significantly (p less than 0.05) with decreased Hb in dogs suffering with vomiting as compared to healthy control group. The serum biochemical examinations revealed significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased mean serum albumin concentration and increased serum creatinine, BUN, ALT and AST values in dogs with vomiting as compared to healthy control group. However, TEC, lymphocyes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes counts and serum total protein did not vary significantly between vomiting and healthy dogs. Rimjhim Khanduri, Sunant K. Raval, Neha Rao, Keshank Dave ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Surgical Removal of Eye Worm (Ocular Setariasis) in Equines Ocular setariasis is a common vision threatening ophthalmic condition in equine resulting from ectopic parasitism by Setaria digitata, Setaria equina and Thelazia lacrymalis. The disease occurs mostly in summer and autumn seasons and it displays signs of lacrimation, photophobia, corneal opacity, conjunctivitis and loss of vision. Close inspection of the eye reveals a moving worm in the anterior chamber of the eye. B-mode ultrasonography using linear probe (10-18 MHz) helps in the diagnosis in case of complete opacity. Six horses were represented for ocular setarial worms. The best treatment is the surgical removal of the parasite under regional/ general anaesthesia. Paracentesis of anterior chamber for removal of intraocular parasite through a modified clear corneal stab incision at the limbal margins using 2.8 mm pointed tip 45o angled keratome was found effective. The visual outcome in all eyes was good with restoration of normal vision. The present review/ communication is aimed at report etiology, diagnosis and management of ocular setariasis in equine species. Devangini A Ratnu, Pinesh V Parikh, Divyesh N Kelawala, Malhar D Patel, Jalendra K Mahla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Histological Study on the Fibrous Architecture of the Adrenal Gland During Postnatal Development in Buffalo The study was conducted on the adrenal glands of 29 buffaloes ranging from day old to one year of age. The adrenal gland was fully differentiated into cortex and medulla in the day old buffalo calf and was completely surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule at this stage. The capsule consisted of outer layer of loose connective tissue and inner layer of thick collagen fibres. The connective tissue trabeculae made up of collagen and reticular fibres arose from the inner aspect of capsule and infiltrated the cortical parenchyma of the gland. The reticular fibres dominated in the inner aspect of the capsule and the proportion of reticular fibres was more in the zona glomerulosa and outer zone of medulla, however, elastic fibres were not observed in any part of the gland up to one year of age. The average thickness of the capsule increased with progression of age which was due to increase in the density of collagen fibres especially in the inner zone of capsule. Vishnudeo Kumar, Ram Saran Sethi, Opinder Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Antibiogram Pattern of Common Plant Leaves against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Whole Milk Culture The in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extract of selected plants namely Neem (Azadirachta indica), Guava (Psidium guajava), Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), Mango (Mangifera indica), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Seasum (Dalbergia sissoo) leaves was studied against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and whole milk culture. The antibiogram revealed that S. aureus isolates were 100% susceptible to ethanolic extracts of only Neem and Guava in addition to standard drug Streptopenicillin followed by Lemongrass that showed 60 % sensitivity. The percent sensitivity of ethanolic extract of these plants against isolates of E. coli was 60, 40, 40, 0, 0 and 0, respectively. In whole milk culture the sensitivity percent was 100% for Neem, Guava, Lemon grass in comparison to 40% for Mango leaves and 0 % each for Tulsi and Seasum leaves. The aqueous extract of Neem, Lemongrass and Mango leaves did not show any activity against the isolates of S. aureus (0% sensitivity). All the leaf extracts were inactive against E. coli (0% sensitivity). The extract of Neem exhibited sensitivity against 40% isolates of whole milk culture. Satyavrat Singh, Jitendra Pratap Singh, Sandeep Kumar Yadav, Ramakant ., Vibha Yadav, Rajesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Influence of Blood Metabolites on Ovarian Rebound in Postpartum Sahiwal Cows Present investigation was carried out to study the influence of blood metabolites, viz., glucose and NEFA on ovarian rebound in postpartum Sahiwal cows. Advance pregnant Sahiwal cows (n=14) maintained at Bull Mother Experimental Farm at Anjora, Durg (CG), India were selected and divided into two Groups, Group I comprised of animals (n=7) with BCS ≥ 2.75 and that of Group II comprised of animals (n=7) with average BCS less than 2.75 at one week before parturition. Trans-rectal ultrasound scanning of ovaries was accomplished in animals of both groups on alternate days from 21 to 51 days postpartum to record the development of dominant follicles (DF). Animals of Group-I without DF recorded higher pre-partum BCS than those with DF (n=3). Non-significant differences were recorded in mean serum glucose concentration between animals of Group-I and Group-II during all days of observation. Significant differences were (p less than0.01) observed in mean serum glucose concentration between animals with and without DF of Group-I on day 20 postpartum (39.79±0.56 vs 43.53±0.29 mg/dl). Animals (n=3) with DF of Group-I showed significantly increasing trend of mean serum glucose level from 20 to 50 days of postpartum, whereas the animals (n=4) without DF recorded similar serum glucose levels between 10 and 40 days postpartum. Significantly (p less than 0.05) higher mean serum NEFA concentrations were recorded in animals without DF than in animals with DF of Group-I on all days from the day of calving to 50 days postpartum, except on day 10. It may be concluded that higher serum NEFA concentration influenced the development of dominant follicle in postpartum Sahiwal cows. Mithilesh Uppal, Manoj Kumar Awasthi, Mahesh Ram Poyam, Girish Kumar Mishra, Kaiser Parveen, Manisha Verma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 BoLA - DRB3 Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Lactation Yield and Milk Constituents in Crossbred Cattle The present study was undertaken to explore polymorphism at exon 2 of BoLA-DRB3 gene locus and its association with milk yield, fat % and protein % in a total of 40 Holstein-Friesian crosssbred cows using PCR-RFLP method. PCR-RFLP using Hae III restriction enzyme revealed presence of 7 genotypes with frequencies 0.475 (AA), 0.225 (AB), 0.050 (AE), 0.100 (BB), 0.050 (DD), 0.050 (EE) and 0.050 (II), respectively and PCR-RFLP using Bst YI yielded 3 genotypes with frequencies 0.050 (AA), 0.625 (AB) and 0.325 (BB), respectively. To study the association of BoLA-DRB3.2 genotypes with milk yield, fat and protein %, the data was subjected to analysis of variance employing general linear model using SPSS software package. Effect of farm (p less than 0.01) and parity (p less than 0.05) was significant on lactation yield; while the effect of season of calving, Hae III genotypes and Bst YI genotypes were non-significant. For fat % the effect of parity and season of calving was significant (p less than 0.05), while the effect of farm and genotype was non-significant. Milk protein % was significantly (p less than 0.05) influenced only by Bst YI genotype. Genotype AB recorded significantly higher protein % as compared to genotype BB. Kauvery Tayeng, Satyendra Singh Tomar, Sandeep Nanavati, Ranjit Aich, Shely Ignetious, Sunil Kumar Nagoriya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Factors Affecting Lactation Length and Peak Milk Yield in Gir Cattle The production records of 228 Gir cows with 680 lactations sired by 52 bulls, maintained at Cattle Breeding Farm, Junagadh, were studied for 24 years (1987-2010). The data were analyzed to study the effect of period of calving, season of calving and parity as fixed effect on the production traits, viz., lactation length and peak milk yield. The least squares means of lactation length and peak milk yield in Gir cows were found to be 328.27 ± 12.99 days and 12.31 ± 0.51 kg, respectively. The variance analysis revealed that the period of calving and parity had a highly significant (p less than 0.01) influence on average lactation length and peak milk yield in Gir cows. Effect of season of calving was non- significant on these traits, indicating breed characteristic to adopt with tropical environment. There was precise decreasing trend in the lactation length due to parity or sequence of calving, indicating decrease of lactation length as the age advances, whereas peak milk yield increased gradually till 5th parity and then declined with advancing age/parity till 11th lactation. Lactation length ranged from 408.78 to 268.93 days in 1st to 12th parity, while peak milk yield in 1st, 5th and 10th lactation was 9.48, 13.65 11.17 kg, respectively. Nikhil S Dangar, Pravin H Vataliya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Crushed Soybean and Flaxseed on Estrus Attributes in Postpartum Crossbred Cows The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation of crushed soybean and flaxseed on estrus attributes and preovulatory follicle size in postpartum cows. A total 20 postpartum crossbred multiparous cows from 2nd to 4th lactation with normal calving history were selected and randomly divided into two groups viz. Group 1 (T1) cows fed with roasted crushed soybean @10% of DM (300 g /100 Kg of body weight/day) till 50 and then after continued with crushed flaxseed @ 15% of DM (300 g /100 Kg of body weight/day) and group 2 (T2- without additional fat). Cows from both the groups were subjected to an ovsynch synchronization protocol on day 60 postpartum and observed for induced estrus response, time required for onset of induced estrus, intensity and duration of induced estrus. The diameter of preovulatory follicles was studied transrectaly with a linear-array 7.5 MHZ probe before the second buserelin acetate injection. The dietary supplementation of soybean and flaxseed influenced estrus response, intensity of estrus and time required for onset of induced estrus and duration of estrus however the difference was statistically non significant. At the same time the mean preovulatory follicle diameter was significantly higher in supplemented group. Anand R Ratnaparkhi, Shyam G Deshmukh, Chaitanya H Pawshe, Mahesh V Ingawale, Milind G Thorat, Shailendra V Kuralkar, Manoj S Patil, Anil U Bhikane, Sunil P Waghmare ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Reproductive Traits in Berari Goats of Vidharbha Region of Maharashtra The objective of this study was to examine the different benchmarks of reproductive traits in Berari goats. The Berari goat was recently recognised as India’s 23rd goat breed at the national level. The study was carried out for 18 months on 12 female Berari goat kids. The different benchmarks of reproductive traits observed non-significant difference in single and twins born kids such as age at puberty, age at maturity, duration of estrus, average weight at conception, age at kidding, time required for kidding and gestation length, which were found within normal range for the other breeds of goat. It was concluded that the Berari goat breed has lower age at first estrus, age at first kidding and higher reproductive performance, which can be exploited for improving the breeding efficiency of local non-descript goat population. Vaijnath B Kale, Chaitanya H Pawshe, Mahesh V Ingawale, Shyam G Deshmukh, Milind G Thorat, Sunil P Waghmare ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Lantana Toxicity in Grazing Cattle . Kavitha Govindaiah, Rajashekar Biradar, Venkatesha M Dasappa Gupta, Byregowda S Munivenkatappa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Surgical Management of Non-Reducible Congenital Umbilical Hernia in a Piglet . Rashmi Kaushik, A K Sharma, Reetu ., Bidyabhushan Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Sunil Oraon, Shradha AB Minz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Clinical Management of Hypothyroidism Associated Dermatological Signs in a Labrador: A Case Report . Gunajit Das, Pubaleem Deka, Kongkon Jyoti Dutta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0530